Yaokwa, the Enawene Nawe people’s ritual for the maintenance of social and cosmic order, is integrated into their everyday activities over the course of seven months during which the clans alternate responsibilities: one group embarks on fishing expeditions throughout the area while another prepares offerings of rock salt, fish and ritual food for the spirits, and performs music and dance. The ritual combines knowledge of agriculture, food processing, handicrafts (costumes, tools and musical instruments) and the construction of houses and fishing dams.
Photo: UNESCO ICH / IPHAN
from the video Faces of Afro-Central Americans pt. 2 (youtube.com)
The African descended population of the countries of Central America, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. One group was delivered largely in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries to work in mines on the Pacific site of the area, and most lost their specific African identity over time and through custom. Their present day descendants speak Spanish. The other group had more diverse origins, but often had connections with England. One group arrived with a shipwrecked slave ship in the seventeenth century, the Miskito Sambu, another group were brought by English settlers on the Mosquito Coast and in Belize, a third group arrived from the island of St Vincent, deported by the English in 1797, the Garifuna, and another came in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries from Jamaica, the Bay Islands, Cayman Islands and occasionally other English Caribbean colonies through labor schemes of the large American transportation and fruit growing concerns.
I took the opportunity to ask a question that I had forgotten earlier: are the Wannila-aththo really the descendants of the children of Kuveni and King Vijaya, an Indian prince believed to be the father of the Sinhala race?
“That is not true,” said the Nayaka Aththo. “Kuveni was of the Yaksha tribe, one of the tribes living on the island when Prince Vijaya arrived on its shores. We are descendants of the Yaksha tribe too. So while Kuveni is of our tribe, we didn’t descend from her. Our history dates back centuries before Kuveni and Vijaya. Our people have been living in this country for more than 125,000 years.”
Adivasi girl from Dhurwa standing in front of her hut - in a small village near Jagdalpur. Unfortunatelly her husband wasn’t present so she didn’t let us in.
Adivasi (tribal) people are indigenous population of India, that means they lived here even before it was colonized by Hindus. They keep their own tradition and beliefs, they also belong to different ethnic group than Hindu Indians.
For centuries (or rather thousands of years) they lived in forests, in complete or almost complete isolation from outside World. In recent times they situation is worsening, as with the growth of Indian population they are being deprived of their land.
Currently their status in the Indian society is similar to this of dalits (“untouchables”), that means very low.
Photo: Antoni Mysliborski
In many parts of the Americas today, there are still people of African Negritic racial backgrounds who continue to exist either blended into the larger African-Americas population or are parts of separate, indigenous groups living on their own lands with their own unique culture and languages.
One such example is the Washitaw Nation who owned about one million square miles of the former Louisiana Territories, (see www.Hotep.org), but who now own only about 70,000 acres of all their former territory. The regaining of their lands from the U.S. was a long process which concluded partially in 1991, when they won the right to their lands in a U.S. court.
The Black Californian broke up as a nation during the late 1800’s after many years of war with the Spanish invaders of the South West, with Mexico and with the U.S. They blended into the Black population of California and their descendants still exist among the millions of Black Californians of today.
The Black Caribs or Garifunas of the Caribbean Islands and Central America fought with the English and Spanish from the late fifteen hundreds up to 1797, when the British sued for peace. The Garifuna were expelled from their islands but they prospered in Central America where hundreds of thousands live along the coasts today.
The Afro-Darienite is a significant group of pre-historic, pre-columbian Blacks who existed in South America and Central America. These Blacks were the Africans that the Spanish first saw during their exploration of the narrow strip of land between Columbia and Central America and who were described as “slaves of our lord” since the Spaniards and Europeans had the intention of enslaving all Blacks they found in the newly discovered lands.
The above mentioned Blacks of pre-columbian origins are not Blacks who mixed with the Mongoloid Indian population as occurred during the time of slavery. They were Blacks who were in some cases on their lands before the southward migrations of the Mongoloid Native Americans. In many cases, these Blacks had established civilizations in the Americas thousands of years ago.
(via Race and History)
Also, some reading that would be helpful is Ivan Van Sertima’s “They Came Before Columbus” (which is available for free.99 on scribd.com)